THIS NEEDS TO BE DONE INTWO HOURS!!Question 11 ptsA common misconception about inductive arguments is that they __________.are weak or strongare more persuasive than deductive argumentsgo from specific to generalgo from general to specificFlag this QuestionQuestion 21 ptsWhich of the following is true about combining deductive and inductive reasoning?One should never try to combine the two, but should make the best choice of which one to use.If an argument has inductive and deductive elements, then the overall argument is generally deductive.The argument fails to adequately support its conclusion.If an argument has inductive and deductive elements, then the overall argument is generally inductive.Flag this QuestionQuestion 31 ptsInductive arguments aim for this type of connection between their premises and conclusions.A true connectionA probable connectionA methodological connectionAn absolute connectionFlag this QuestionQuestion 41 ptsInference to the best explanation is often expressed in which invalid argumentative form?Denying the antecedentAffirming the consequentDenying the consequentAffirming the antecedentFlag this QuestionQuestion 51 ptsOne way to make an inductive argument weaker is to __________.strengthen the conclusioneliminate the conclusionmake the argument validstrengthen a premiseFlag this QuestionQuestion 61 ptsThis philosopher claimed that science should focus on falsifiability rather than confirmation.Karl PopperFriedrich NietzscheLudwig WittgensteinGalileoFlag this QuestionQuestion 71 ptsWhat type of inductive argument is the following example?The garbage cans were not picked up today; it must be some kind of holiday.Argument from analogyInductive generalizationStatistical syllogismInference to the best explanationFlag this QuestionQuestion 81 ptsWhich of the following is true of the distinction between induction and deduction?Inductive reasoning means going from the specific to the general; while deductive reasoning is the reverse.Inductive reasoning means going from the general to the specific, while deductive reasoning is the reverse.Some forms of inductive reasoning go from the specific to the general, while others go from the general to the specific.Deductive reasoning never has a general conclusion.Flag this QuestionQuestion 91 ptsWhen conducting a survey, it is important to choose a sample that __________.is validhas members with the same viewsis intelligentis randomFlag this QuestionQuestion 101 ptsThe margin of error is __________.the percentage of a population that expresses a trait that is being studiedsomething that is not important in statistical argumentsthe a likely range of difference that one can expect between the sample and the whole populationusually greater with larger sample populationsFlag this QuestionQuestion 111 ptsWhich of the following is necessary in order for an explanation to be adequate?It does not agree with other human knowledge.It provides an overly complex solution.It is noncircular.It is contradicted by other instances.Flag this QuestionQuestion 121 ptsWhat is the word for an argument that is inductively strong and has all true premises?Cogent.Sound.Valid.True.Flag this QuestionQuestion 131 ptsMill’s methods claim that if two or more cases share the same effect and share only one common characteristic, then this characteristic may be related to the cause of the effect. Which of Mill’s methods does this describe?Method of agreementMethod of differenceJoint method of agreement and differenceMethod of concomitant variationFlag this QuestionQuestion 141 ptsWhat type of inductive argument is the following example?Every Eagles record I have heard has been great, so probably all of their albums are great.Argument from analogyInductive generalizationStatistical syllogismInference to the best explanationFlag this QuestionQuestion 151 ptsWhat does it mean for an argument to be cogent?It is valid and sound.It is inductively strong and has all true premises.It has a structure that is intended to be valid.All of the above.Flag this QuestionQuestion 161 ptsIf thing A is always true whenever thing B is, then ____________.B is a sufficient condition for AA is a sufficient condition for BA and B are both sufficient conditions for each otherNone of the aboveFlag this QuestionQuestion 171 ptsIn the “What is a ‘Strong’ Argument?” video, what is the line at which we call an argument logically strong?There is no strict line at which inductive arguments become strong; it is a matter of context.It is strong if it confers a 90% likelihood on its conclusion.It is only truly strong if the conclusion is absolutely certain.It has all true premises and the conclusion is likely.Flag this QuestionQuestion 181 ptsUsing the hypothetico-deductive method how does one go about trying to test a hypothesis?One deduces a consequence from it and tests whether it occurs.One seeks tests that will verify its truth.One avoids situations in which the hypothesis might fail.One changes the hypothesis to fit the data.Flag this QuestionQuestion 191 ptsWhich of the following is the weakest example of causal reasoning?Claiming that a rock broke the window when one finds a shattered window and a stone in one’s living roomClaiming that the caffeine from the coffee one drank at 10 p.m. made it hard to sleepClaiming that one got into a car wreck because someone was textingClaiming that one lost a bet because a black cat walked across one’s pathFlag this QuestionQuestion 201 ptsAccording to one of Mill’s methods, if there is only one factor that is present in a case in which the effect is seen and absent in cases in which it is not seen then that factor may be causally related to the effect in question. Which of Mill’s methods does this describe?Method of agreementMethod of differenceInductive reasoningMethod of concomitant variation
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